How did people make ice cream before freezers?

The 2002 commemorative edition of The Original Fannie Farmer 1896 Cook Book. (Image: Shala Howell)

I continue to be fascinated by this Strawberry Festival poster, specifically the question of how on earth do you make ice cream without mechanical or electrical refrigeration?

My copy of The Original Fannie Farmer 1896 Cookbook includes several recipes for ice cream, but sadly no instructions for how one would actually go about freezing it. Marion Harland etal’s New England Cook Book from 1905 also includes lots of recipes, but no actual instructions on process.

Thank goodness for Their article on 1890-1920 Ice Cream Pudding Recipes is quite detailed on this point. Basically, to make homemade ice cream back in 1890, you would take today’s process and add a bunch of manual labor.

In other words:

  1. Prepare fruit, nuts, and other ice cream mix-ins, and set aside.
  2. Mix the liquid ingredients for the ice cream together in an earthenware jar.
  3. Crush a bunch of ice and add salt to it. (1 part salt to 3 parts ice)
  4. Put the ice and salt in a basin with plenty of room to hold the ice as well as your earthenware jar.
  5. Cover the jar with a piece of cloth with a slit in it or with several layers of thick grease-proof paper. Carefully insert an egg beater through the slit in the cloth and/or paper.
  6. Put the jar in the basin with the ice and salt. Let it sit for five minutes, then turn the crank on the egg beater slowly and steadily for a few minutes. Freeze to a mush.
  7. Add mashed fruit, nuts and other flavorings when the mixture is half-frozen.
  8. Keep stirring, increasing your speed steadily until the mixture freezes completely.
  9. Once frozen, let the ice cream sit in the jar or a mold for at least an hour to “ripen.”

Suite101 includes a number of ice cream recipes, in case you want to try this at home. They sound interesting, but frankly I doubt the Friendly Society would have served Irish Moss ice cream at a Strawberry Festival. They were much more likely to use something like these basic Ice Cream recipes from my 1896 Fanny Farmer:

Vanilla Ice Cream I (Philadelphia)

Advertisement for the 1890s Gem Freezer: “The Best in the World” (Image via stilltherllbemore, who has put the postcard up for sale on ebay.)

  • 1 quart thin cream
  • 3/4 cup sugar
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons vanilla

Mix ingredients and freeze.

Strawberry Ice Cream

  • 3 pints thin cream
  • 2 boxes strawberries
  • 1 3/4 cups sugar
  • 2 cups milk
  • 1 1/2 tablespoons arrowroot

Wash and hull berries, sprinkle with sugar, let stand one hour, mash and rub through strainer. Scald one and one-half cups milk; dilute arrowroot with remaining milk, add to hot milk, and cook ten minutes in double boiler; cool, add cream, freeze to a mush, add fruit and finish freezing.

Let me know if you do try this at home. I’d love to know how it turns out.

BTW: Although Agnes Marshall (1855-1905) included a recipe for an edible ice cream cone in her 1888 Mrs A. B. Marshall’s Cookery Book, ice cream cones didn’t become widely available until some time after the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. So for a truly authentic recreation, you’ll need to serve your 1890s-style ice cream in a bowl.

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